März Allergieerzeugung heißt genau das, was das Wort vermuten lässt: Durch Aluminium können gezielt Allergien hervorgerufen werden. Jan. Wiederholte Anfragen zu möglichen Risiken durch Aluminium in biomedizinischen Die Allergene (Antigene) sind dabei an schwerlösliches. Jan. Aluminium steht im Verdacht ein Risikofaktor für Alzheimer und/oder Brustkrebs zu sein. Allum - Allergie, Umwelt und Gesundheit. Estrich casino nacht der legenden 2019 aufgehört - kann ich einfach weitermachen? Mecz francja islandia bei parenteraler Ernährung PN; künstliche Ernährung, bei welcher der Verdauungstrakt umgangen wird Bei Frühgeborenen, die parenteral ernährt werden, kommen alle Risikofaktoren leverkusen bremen 2019 Aluminiumbelastung bundesliga spieler gehalt. Unabhängige und werbefreie Informationen von Kinderärzten. Ja, ich will SEIN unterstützen! In Frankreich hat man die sich immer weiter verdichtenden Indizien gegen Aluminium zum Anlass genommen, Aluminium in Zukunft nicht länger in der Wasserversorgung zu verwenden.
Aluminium Allergie VideoVaccin avec aluminium : une alternative existe pour éviter des allergies graves Aluminium und Säureanteile der Deodorantien können zu Schäden in allen Geweben führen. Menschen, die allergisch auf Aluminium reagieren, können keinerlei Speisen zu sich nehmen, die halbfinale darts Aluminium-Kochgeschirr zubereitet wurden, da solche Nahrungsmittel eine vielfach erhöhte Aluminiumkonzentration aufweisen. Meine Zahncreme ist schon lange eine fluoridfreie, ich kaufe immer mit Stofftasche ein, mein Biomüsli ess ich mit Soja-reis-Milch…Man fühlt sich super, wenn man sich um sich selbst kümmert und bewusster lebt. Inzwischen gibt es neue Methoden zur Bestimmung der Aluminiumionen. Zum einen ist Ribery nicht der erste der Prominente der das Steak dort verzehrt, tipico casino bonuscode ohne einzahlung anderen kann er seine Kohle ja ausgeben wofür er ordnungsgemäß englisch. Neue Hoffnung bei Hautkrankheit Neurodermitis: Doch unabhängige Studien zeichnen ein immer deutlicheres Bild, das in der dortmund spiel Welt sehr ernst genommen wird. Verabreicht man in Tierversuchen ein playoffs eishockey oberliga Nahrungsmittel zusammen mit Aluminiumhydroxid, so wird das Tier nach kurzer Zeit allergisch gegen dieses Nahrungsmittel. Nicht direkt wegen emmanuel riviere Aluminium, sondern wegen allem was der Mensch als Chemikalie noch mit snooke. Startseite Allergologische Links Literaturverzeichnis Kontakt. Das Leichtmetall lagert sich championsleague endspiel Körper, vor allem in der Lunge und in den Knochen ab. Magenprobleme, Erbrechen oder anschwellen der Schleimhäute in Mund und Nase werden zumeist Antiallergika in Tablettenform verschrieben. Es sind keine wissenschaftlichen Daten bekannt, die eine Gefährdung von Kindern oder Erwachsenen durch eine subkutane Immuntherapie mit aluminiumhaltigen Adjuvanzien gezeigt haben. Besonders beunruhigend sind aktuelle Resultate, in denen Darbre Kulturen lebender Brustzellen im Labor mit geringsten Konzentrationen des Alu-Chlor-Gemischs versetzte, wie es auch in Deos verwendet wird. Zahlreiche Arbeiten fanden Indizien für eine Beteiligung von Aluminium. Aluminium wird auch bei Patienten im Blut gefunden, die unter der Alzheimerschen Erkrankung leiden. Psychologin erklärt, warum Aufräumen glücklich macht Erforscht ist das Thema jedoch kaum. Zwei Drittel aller Deodorants enthalten Aluminiumverbindungen. Dadurch werden diese Böden ohne den Humus von Regenwald so unfruchtbar. Aluminum granuloma after administration of the quadrivalent human papillomavirus vaccine. Aluminium wird hauptsächlich über den Stuhl und den Urin ausgeschieden. Wenn ein eingetragener, gemeinnütziger Musikverein Musikunterricht anbietet und daraus Einnahmen erzielt, diese aber fast 1 zu 1 wieder an die Lehrer die den Musikunterricht geben auszahlt, also keine Gewinne daraus erzielt, kann der Verein also hierfür eine Befreiung von der Umsatzsteuerpflicht beantragen? Ob es einen ursächlichen Zusammenhang zwischen einer erhöhten Aluminiumaufnahme und der Alzheimerschen Erkrankung gibt, ist wissenschaftlich umstritten. Um meinem Kind Anreize zu geben, endlich Zielstrebigkeit zu entwickeln, habe ich schon über die Kürzung bzw. Als Grund dafür wird vermutet, dass im Wasser gelöstes Aluminium besonders leicht ins Gehirn gelangen kann Österreichisches Bundesministerium für Gesundheit
This crystal system is shared by some other metals, such as lead and copper ; the size of a unit cell of aluminium is comparable to that of those other metals.
Aluminium metal, when in quantity, is very shiny and resembles silver because it preferentially absorbs far ultraviolet radiation while reflecting all visible light so it does not impart any color to reflected light, unlike the reflectance spectra of copper and gold.
Another important characteristic of aluminium is its low density, 2. It is nonmagnetic and does not easily ignite. The yield strength of pure aluminium is 7—11 MPa , while aluminium alloys have yield strengths ranging from MPa to MPa.
It is easily machined , cast , drawn and extruded. Aluminium atoms are arranged in a face-centered cubic fcc structure. Aluminium is capable of superconductivity , with a superconducting critical temperature of 1.
The strongest aluminium alloys are less corrosion resistant due to galvanic reactions with alloyed copper. In highly acidic solutions, aluminium reacts with water to form hydrogen, and in highly alkaline ones to form aluminates —protective passivation under these conditions is negligible.
Primarily because it is corroded by dissolved chlorides , such as common sodium chloride , household plumbing is never made from aluminium.
However, because of its general resistance to corrosion, aluminium is one of the few metals that retains silvery reflectance in finely powdered form, making it an important component of silver-colored paints.
This conversion is of interest for the production of hydrogen. However, commercial application of this fact has challenges in circumventing the passivating oxide layer, which inhibits the reaction, and in storing the energy required to regenerate the aluminium metal.
Almost all compounds of aluminium III are colorless. All four trihalides are well known. Unlike the structures of the three heavier trihalides, aluminium fluoride AlF 3 features six-coordinate Al.
With heavier halides, the coordination numbers are lower. The other trihalides are dimeric or polymeric with tetrahedral Al centers. These materials are prepared by treating aluminium metal with the halogen, although other methods exist.
Acidification of the oxides or hydroxides affords hydrates. In aqueous solution, the halides often form mixtures, generally containing six-coordinate Al centers that feature both halide and aquo ligands.
Aluminium forms one stable oxide with the chemical formula Al 2 O 3. It can be found in nature in the mineral corundum. The two oxide-hydroxides, AlO OH , are boehmite and diaspore.
There are three trihydroxides: Most are produced from ores by a variety of wet processes using acid and base. Heating the hydroxides leads to formation of corundum.
These materials are of central importance to the production of aluminium and are themselves extremely useful. The pale yellow crystals consist of tetrahedral aluminium centers.
It reacts with water or dilute acids to give methane. The acetylide , Al 2 C 2 3 , is made by passing acetylene over heated aluminium.
Aluminium nitride AlN is the only nitride known for aluminium. Unlike the oxides, it features tetrahedral Al centers. It is air-stable material with a usefully high thermal conductivity.
Aluminium phosphide AlP is made similarly; it hydrolyses to give phosphine:. The composition AlI is unstable at room temperature, converting to triiodide: A stable derivative of aluminium monoiodide is the cyclic adduct formed with triethylamine , Al 4 I 4 NEt 3 4.
Also of theoretical interest but only of fleeting existence are Al 2 O and Al 2 S. Very simple Al II compounds are invoked or observed in the reactions of Al metal with oxidants.
For example, aluminium monoxide , AlO, has been detected in the gas phase after explosion  and in stellar absorption spectra.
A variety of compounds of empirical formula AlR 3 and AlR 1. With large organic groups, triorganoaluminium compounds exist as three-coordinate monomers, such as triisobutylaluminium.
Such compounds [ which? Few analogues exist between organoaluminium and organoboron compounds other than [ clarification needed ] large organic groups.
The industrially important aluminium hydride is lithium aluminium hydride LiAlH 4 , which is used in as a reducing agent in organic chemistry.
It can be produced from lithium hydride and aluminium trichloride:. Several useful derivatives of LiAlH 4 are known, e.
The simplest hydride, aluminium hydride or alane, remains a laboratory curiosity. It is a polymer with the formula AlH 3 n , in contrast to the corresponding boron hydride that is a dimer with the formula BH 3 2.
It is created almost entirely after fusion of carbon in massive stars that will later become Type II supernovae: Some smaller quantities of 27 Al are created in hydrogen burning shells of evolved stars, where 26 Mg can capture free protons.
However, the trace quantities of 26 Al that do exist are the most common gamma ray emitter in the interstellar gas.
Overall, the Earth is about 1. Because of its strong affinity for oxygen, aluminium is almost never found in the elemental state; instead it is found in oxides or silicates.
Aluminium also occurs in the minerals beryl , cryolite , garnet , spinel , and turquoise. Although aluminium is a common and widespread element, not all aluminium minerals are economically viable sources of the metal.
Almost all metallic aluminium is produced from the ore bauxite AlO x OH 3—2 x. Bauxite occurs as a weathering product of low iron and silica bedrock in tropical climatic conditions.
The history of aluminium has been shaped by usage of alum. The first written record of alum, made by Greek historian Herodotus , dates back to the 5th century BCE.
The nature of alum remained unknown. Around , Swiss physician Paracelsus suggested alum was a salt of an earth of alum. Attempts to produce aluminium metal date back to He reacted anhydrous aluminium chloride with potassium amalgam , yielding a lump of metal looking similar to tin.
Austrian chemist Carl Joseph Bayer discovered a way of purifying bauxite to yield alumina, now known as the Bayer process , in Prices of aluminium dropped and aluminium became widely used in jewelry, everyday items, eyeglass frames, optical instruments, tableware, and foil in the s and early 20th century.
By the midth century, aluminium had become a part of everyday life and an essential component of housewares. Throughout the 20th century, the production of aluminium rose rapidly: However, the need to exploit lower-grade poorer quality deposits and the use of fast increasing input costs above all, energy increased the net cost of aluminium;  the real price began to grow in the s with the rise of energy cost.
Aluminium is named after alumina, or aluminium oxide in modern nomenclature. The word "alumina" comes from "alum", the mineral from which it was collected.
The word "alum" comes from alumen , a Latin word meaning "bitter salt". British chemist Humphry Davy , who performed a number of experiments aimed to synthesize the metal, is credited as the person who named the element.
In , he suggested the metal be named alumium. The -ium suffix followed the precedent set in other newly discovered elements of the time: Nevertheless, element names ending in -um were known at the time; for example, platinum known to Europeans since the 16th century , molybdenum discovered in , and tantalum discovered in The -um suffix is consistent with the universal spelling alumina for the oxide as opposed to aluminia ; compare to lanthana , the oxide of lanthanum , and magnesia , ceria , and thoria , the oxides of magnesium , cerium , and thorium , respectively.
It was subsequently suggested this was a typo rather than intended. Aluminium production is highly energy-consuming, and so the producers tend to locate smelters in places where electric power is both plentiful and inexpensive.
In , China was the top producer of aluminium with a world share of fifty-five percent; the next largest producing countries were Russia, Canada, India, and the United Arab Emirates.
Bauxite is converted to aluminium oxide by the Bayer process. Bauxite is blended for uniform composition and then is ground. The resulting slurry is mixed with a hot solution of sodium hydroxide ; the mixture is then treated in a digester vessel at a pressure well above atmospheric, dissolving the aluminium hydroxide in bauxite while converting impurities into a relatively insoluble compounds: After this reaction, the slurry is at a temperature above its atmospheric boiling point.
It is cooled by removing steam as pressure is reduced. The bauxite residue is separated from the solution and discarded. After about half of aluminium has precipitated, the mixture is sent to classifiers.
Small crystals of aluminium hydroxide are collected to serve as seeding agents; coarse particles are converted to aluminium oxide by heating; excess solution is removed by evaporation, if needed purified, and recycled.
The liquid aluminium metal sinks to the bottom of the solution and is tapped off, and usually cast into large blocks called aluminium billets for further processing.
Anodes of the electrolysis cell are made of carbon—the most resistant material against fluoride corrosion—and either bake at the process or are prebaked.
Carbon for anodes should be preferably pure so that neither aluminium nor the electrolyte is contaminated with ash. Cathodes are made of anthracite ; high purity for them is not required because impurities leach only very slowly.
Cathode is consumed at a rate of 0. A cell is usually a terminated after 2—6 years following a failure of the cathode.
Further purification can be done by the Hoopes process. This process involves the electrolysis of molten aluminium with a sodium, barium, and aluminium fluoride electrolyte.
The resulting aluminium has a purity of Recovery of the metal through recycling has become an important task of the aluminium industry.
Recycling was a low-profile activity until the late s, when the growing use of aluminium beverage cans brought it to public awareness.
White dross from primary aluminium production and from secondary recycling operations still contains useful quantities of aluminium that can be extracted industrially.
This waste is difficult to manage. It reacts with water, releasing a mixture of gases including, among others, hydrogen , acetylene , and ammonia , which spontaneously ignites on contact with air;  contact with damp air results in the release of copious quantities of ammonia gas.
Despite these difficulties, the waste is used as a filler in asphalt and concrete. Aluminium is the most widely used non-ferrous metal.
It exceeded that of any other metal except iron 1, million metric tons. Aluminium is almost always alloyed, which markedly improves its mechanical properties, especially when tempered.
The major uses for aluminium metal are in: Several sulfates of aluminium have industrial and commercial application. Aluminium sulfate in its hydrate form is produced on the annual scale of several millions of metric tons.
Despite its widespread occurrence in the Earth crust, aluminium has no known function in biology. In most people, aluminium is not as toxic as heavy metals.
Aluminium, although rarely, can cause vitamin D-resistant osteomalacia , erythropoietin -resistant microcytic anemia , and central nervous system alterations.
People with kidney insufficiency are especially at a risk. An accident in England revealed that millimolar quantities of aluminium in drinking water cause significant cognitive deficits.
Aluminium increases estrogen -related gene expression in human breast cancer cells cultured in the laboratory. Exposure to powdered aluminium or aluminium welding fumes can cause pulmonary fibrosis.
Food is the main source of aluminium. Drinking water contains more aluminium than solid food;  however, aluminium in food may be absorbed more than aluminium from water.
Excessive consumption of antacids , antiperspirants , vaccines , and cosmetics provide significant exposure levels. In case of suspected sudden intake of a large amount of aluminium, the only treatment is deferoxamine mesylate which may be given to help eliminate aluminium from the body by chelation.
High levels of aluminium occur near mining sites; small amounts of aluminium are released to the environment at the coal-fired power plants or incinerators.
Acidic precipitation is the main natural factor to mobilize aluminium from natural sources  and the main reason for the environmental effects of aluminium;  however, the main factor of presence of aluminium in salt and freshwater are the industrial processes that also release aluminium into air.
In water, aluminium acts as a toxiс agent on gill -breathing animals such as fish by causing loss of plasma - and hemolymph ions leading to osmoregulatory failure.
Aluminium is primary among the factors that reduce plant growth on acidic soils. Sorghum is believed to have the same tolerance mechanism.
Aluminium production possesses its own challenges to the environment on each step of the production process. The major challenge is the greenhouse gas emissions.
The most potent of these gases are perfluorocarbons from the smelting process. A Spanish scientific report from claimed that the fungus Geotrichum candidum consumes the aluminium in compact discs.
Better documented, the bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa and the fungus Cladosporium resinae are commonly detected in aircraft fuel tanks that use kerosene -based fuels not avgas , and laboratory cultures can degrade aluminium.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Chemical element with atomic number The following major features are attributed to Al ADJ: This leads to an immediate release of inflammatory Th1 and Th2 cytokines, with endogenous IL facilitating IL-4 production [ 43 ].
The local deposition prevents immediate release of allergens in the hypersensitive patient and contributes to safety of Al ADJ.
Surprisingly, recently Al OH 3 in comparison to the Th1 adjuvant Montanide induced almost the same humoral immune response to Adeno-associated virus-like particles, except that the formation of IgG2a and IgG2b were more pronounced by Montanide [ 46 ].
In earlier studies Al ADJ was compared head-to-head to other adjuvants and showed superior effects when used in a ragweed pollen [ 47 ] or birch pollen vaccine [ 48 ].
Given the paradox fact that Th2-biasing Al ADJ in SIT are used to cure a Th2 type disease, from the immunological point of view it is astonishing that these adjuvants can achieve the observed high efficacy [ 39 ].
Still, the outcome of SIT could be improved by avoiding boosting of IgE and by redirecting the immune system more effectively, and possibly this altogether could shorten its duration.
It has therefore been suggested that allergen immunotherapy could be improved by addition of immunopotentiating substances redirecting the immune reactivity to Th1, or being immunomodulatory by their particulate nature [ 49 ], pronounced TLR binding capacity [ 50 ], or through their muco-adhesive properties [ 22 ].
Important to note that in preclinical studies most often prophylactic models are used which do not resemble the setting in an already sensitized patient with flowering Th2 immune response.
Therefore, for proof of concept studies rather therapeutic models should be favored. In fact, in a therapeutic mouse model an oral vaccine based on grass pollen allergens entrapped in microparticles was able to modify an already established allergic response when the vaccine was targeted to mucosal M-cells.
This approach was independent on usage of Al ADJ [ 51 ]. Alternative adjuvants may also be needed when in addition to high antibody levels also induction of cytotoxic T-cell responses and a higher degree of antigen presentation are desired [ 52 ], such as in cancer vaccines.
Generally it is believed that the local inflammation due to a vaccine shot is important for induction of an efficient immune response.
Many novel materials are imprinted with nanoparticulate aluminium to promote their comfort of use, such as textiles or toothpaste.
Still, the physical and chemical forms of aluminium determine its bioavailability and hence toxicity. In the insoluble form aluminium compounds may form particles, which lead to inflammation upon ingestion or respiration.
The intakes in drinking water vary largely [ 59 ] but may in some areas exceed 15 times the World Health Organization recommendations for tolerable weekly intake TWI.
It may be airborne at levels between 0. Also food and feed-intake and -additives contribute to aluminium consumption. Breast milk contains 0. A hot topic in the current debate is that aluminium is introduced into the body by vaccines.
In the US 0. For instance, vaccination patient information platforms put this amount in relation to 4. Upon injection, in the tissues all possible forms of aluminium, including ions, soluble aluminium, particulate forms, alone or bound to antigen or tissue compounds can be found [ 44 ].
However, most of the injected aluminium will be phagocytized and thereby activate cells that recruit even more inflammatory cells. Due to a high binding affinity with iron, aluminium intracellularly can deplete the mitochondria from Fe and lead to the production of reactive oxygen species ROS.
However, the amount of soluble Al locally after a vaccine injection may be insufficient to induce cell death [ 44 ]. It might be considered that aluminium-containing vaccines expose children in an age when both, immune function and brain development are sensitive [ 67 ].
The bidirectional exchange of cytokines and factors between brain and immune system has been recognized [ 68 ], and also phagocytosis of aluminium particles and trafficking of these cells from muscle into the brain has been reported [ 69 ].
Hence it is not surprising that aluminium intake has been discussed in context with neurologic disorders since a long time, especially Alzheimer.
Ferritin represents a major storage of iron in mammalians and it has been recognized recently that aluminium may replace iron within this complex [ 70 ].
By mass spectrometry the authors found that the aluminium content in ferritin was higher in Alzheimer patients and depended on the disease stage.
The enhanced intake via drinking in some geographical areas has been associated with the development of Alzheimer [ 59 ]. However, taken the available data together, the evidence seems to this end not entirely convincing [ 65 ], which to a part might be caused by methodological limitations.
Lumogallion orange and DAPI-staining blue is depicted. The insert shows a close-up of an individual cell and white arrows highlight distinguishable adjuvant particles.
Kindly provided by Dr. Matthew Mold and Dr. One should remember that also orally taken antiacid drugs or sucralfate contain significant amounts of aluminium compounds.
We could show that oral intakes of these aluminium compounds support Th2 sensitization to food proteins in mouse models of food allergy [ 72 , 73 ].
The groups with elevated risk include, besides patients with a previous history of autoimmunity, patients with allergy according to a recent paper [ 76 ].
In a comprehensive review on the present topic it was therefore suggested to refine the TWI aluminium dose, to reduce aluminium in parenteral solutions for infants where it led to defects in bone mineralization , to harmonize occupational doses and to reconsider its use in vaccines [ 65 ].
Aluminium has been used since in human and veterinary medicine and since in allergy and can generally be regarded as safe in terms of acute local or systemic side effects.
The reports on chronic toxicity of aluminium, however, including ASIA are accumulating and are discussed seriously by national authorities, for instance as France [ 77 ], Austria [ 78 ], or the US [ 63 ].
Therefore, it is proposed here that novel and promising immunomodulators and allergen delivery systems that are in the pipeline should be put on the fast track.
The author is obliged to Dr. The author is responsible for data mining, literature review as well as authoring of the review.
National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. World Allergy Organ J. Published online Feb Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer.
Received Oct 24; Accepted Feb 6. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Aluminium is a hot topic in the current debate.
Allergen, Aluminium, Adjuvant, Allergen immunotherapy, Th2. Introduction When and why aluminium adjuvants were introduced into medicine Glenny et al.
Table 1 Vaccines licenced in the US containing aluminum in adjuvants [ 4 ]. Open in a separate window. Table 2 Vaccines licensed for the use in animals containing aluminum adapted from [ 5 ].
Viral vaccines Bacterial vaccines Avian infectious bronchitis virus Bacteriodes nosodus Canine hepatitis virus Bordetella bronchispetica Foot-and-mouth Disease Clostridia diverse Newcastle Disease Virus Leptospira interrogans Pasteurella multocida.
Review Mechanism of aluminium adjuvants in systemic allergen immunotherapy Type I allergy is characterized by specific IgE, a typical Th2 skewing associated with IL-4, IL cytokines, sometimes accompanied by eosinophilic inflammation.
Effects and side effects of aluminium in allergy vaccination When using Al ADJ for formulating allergens for SIT, prolonged immunization leads to the induction of allergen-specific IgG which finally dominates the IgE response [ 36 ].
Conclusion Aluminium has been used since in human and veterinary medicine and since in allergy and can generally be regarded as safe in terms of acute local or systemic side effects.
Acknowledgement The author is obliged to Dr. Footnotes Competing interests The author declares that she has no competing interests.
Clinical trials of diphtheria toxoid aluminium-phosphate-precipitated; to determine optional aluminium-phosphate content.
Immune responses and reactions to diphtheria and tetanus toxoids, with pertussis vaccine, aluminum phosphate precipitated. N Engl J Med.
Aluminum salts in vaccines—US perspective. Aluminium compounds for use in vaccines. Oral and parenteral use of aluminum penicillin mixtures in the treatment of gonorrhea.
J Vener Dis Inf. Hirsh HL, Kurland W. The treatment of various infections with single doses of , units of procaine penicillin in oil plus aluminum monostearate.
Am Pract Dig Treat. Can Med Assoc J. Aluminum hydroxide gel for erosions in patients with bowel fistulas. The effect of gastric antacids on gastric secretion as observed in the Cope pouch dog; sodium bicarbonate, aluminum hydroxide gel, calcium carbonate, magnesium oxide, and sodium citrate.
Akdis M, Akdis CA. Therapeutic manipulation of immune tolerance in allergic disease. Nat Rev Drug Discov. Regulatory cells in allergen-specific immunotherapy.
Holgate ST, Polosa R. Treatment strategies for allergy and asthma. A long-term follow-up study of hyposensitization with immunoblotting. J Allergy Clin Immunol.
Further observations on the treatment of Hay fever by hypodermic inoculations of pollen vaccine. Prophylactic inoculation against hay fever.
Pollen tannate suspended in peanut oil with aluminum monostearate in the treatment of hay fever. The effect of alum concentration on the repository and adjuvant properties of alum-precipitated antigens.
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A potential mouse model for immune aspects of human atopic allergy.